Towards a combination of discriminative power of fingerprints and finger vein patterns in multimodal biometric system

Ivan Kováč, Pavol Marák


Multimodal biometric systems are nowadays considered as state of the art subject. Since identity establishment in everyday situations has become very significant and rather difficult, there is a need for reliable means of identification. Multimodal systems establish identity based on more than one biometric trait. Hence one of their most significant advantages is the ability to provide greater recognition accuracy and resistance against the forgery. Many papers have proposed various combinations of biometric traits. However, there is an inferior number of solutions demonstrating the use of fingerprint and finger vein patterns. Our main goal was to contribute to this particular field of biometrics.
\par In this paper, we propose OpenFinger, an automated solution for identity recognition utilizing fingerprint and finger vein pattern which is robust to finger displacement as well as rotation. Evaluation and experiments were conducted using SDUMLA-HMT multimodal database. Our solution has been implemented using C++ language and is distributed as a collection of Linux shared libraries.
\par First, fingerprint images are enhanced by means of adaptive filtering where Gabor filter plays the most significant role. On the other hand, finger vein images require the bounding rectangle to be accurately detected in order to focus just on useful biometric pattern. At the extraction stage, Level-2 features are extracted from fingerprints using deep convolutional network using a popular Caffe framework. We employ SIFT and SURF features in case of finger vein patterns. Fingerprint features are matched using closed commercial algorithm developed by Suprema, whereas finger vein features are matched using OpenCV library built-in functions, namely the brute force matcher and the FLANN-based matcher. In case of SIFT features score normalization is conducted by means of double sigmoid, hyperbolic tangens, Z-score and Min-Max functions. On the side of finger veins, the best result was obtained by a combination of SIFT features, brute force matcher with scores normalized by hyperbolic tangens method. In the end, fusion of both biometric traits is done on a score level basis. Fusion was done by means of sum and mean methods achieving 2.12 % EER. Complete evaluation is presented in terms of general indicators such as FAR/FRR and ROC.

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